Industrial Revolution DBQ

View previous topic View next topic Go down

Industrial Revolution DBQ

Post  Mr. Fisher on Mon Mar 09, 2015 1:50 pm

Guiding Question: Access the validity of the following statement: The benefits of the economic and technological advances gained during the Industrial Revolution justify the ill treatment of workers during the time period. Use at least TWO of the following documents as evidence for arguing for/against this claim.

Respond in blog folder by Sunday, March 15th.

DOCUMENT 1

What was the consequence if you had been too late?
- I was most commonly beaten.

Severely?
- Very severely, I thought.

In those mills is chastisement towards the latter part of the day going on perpetually?
- Perpetually.

So that you can hardly be in a mill without hearing constant crying?
- Never an hour, I believe.

Do you think that if the overlooker were naturally a humane person it would still be found necessary for him to beat the children, in order to keep up their attention and vigilance at the termination of those extraordinary days of labour?
- Yes; the machines turns off a regular quantity of cardings, and of course, the must keep as regularly to their work the whole of the day; they must keep with the machine, and therefore however humane the slubber may be, as he must keep up with the machine or be found fault with, he spurs the children to keep up also by various means but that which he commonly resorts to is to strap them when they become drowsy.

At the time when you were beaten for not keeping up with your work, were you anxious to have done it if you possibly could?
- Yes; the dread of being beaten if we could not keep up with our work was a sufficient impulse to keep us to it if we could.

Testimony of Matthew Crabtree, 22 year-old called to testify before the Sadler Committee about his experiences as a child laborer in an English factory.


DOCUMENT 2

“ . . . Nothing is now done directly, or by hand; all is by rule and calculated contrivance. For the simplest operation, some helps and accompaniments, some cunning abbreviating process is in readiness . . . What wonderful accessions have thus been made, and are still making, to the physical power of mankind; how much better fed, clothed, lodged and, in all outward respects, accommodated men now are, or might be, by a given quantity of labour, is a grateful reflection which forces itself on every one. What changes, too, this addition of power is introducing into the Social System; how wealth has more and more increased, and at the same time gathered itself more and more into masses, strangely altering the old relations, and increasing the distance between the rich and the poor, will be a question for Political Economists, and a much more complex and important one than any they have yet engaged with.”

Excerpt from Thomas Carlyle’s “Signs of the Times: The "Mechanical Age”(1829)



DOCUMENT 3

“Factory labour is a species of work, in some respects singularly unfitted for children. Cooped up in a heated atmosphere, debarred the necessary exercise, remaining in one position for a series of hours, one set or system of muscles alone called into activity, it cannot be wondered at – that its effects are injurious to the physical growth of a child. Where the bony system is still imperfect, the vertical position it is compelled to retain, influences its direction; the spinal column bends beneath the weight of the head, bulges out laterally, or is dragged forward by the weight of the parts composing the chest, the pelvis yields beneath the opposing pressure downwards, and the resistance given by the thigh-bones; its capacity is lessened, sometimes more and sometimes less; the legs curve, and the whole body loses height, in consequence of this general yielding and bending of its parts.”

Excerpt from The Manufacturing Population of England (1833) by P. Gaskell, a medical observer


DOCUMENT 4

“This island is pre-eminent among civilized nations for the prodigious development of its factory wealth, and has been therefore long viewed with a jealous admiration by foreign powers   . . . The blessings which physio-mechanical science has bestowed on society, and the means it has still in store for ameliorating the lot of mankind, have been too little dwelt upon; while on the other hand, it has been accused of lending itself to the rich capitalists as an instrument for harassing the poor, and of exacting from the operative an acceleration rate of work. It has been said, for exampled, that the steam-engine now drives the power-looms with such velocity as to urge on their attendant weavers at the same rapid pace; but that the hand-weaver, not being subjected to this restless agent, can throw his shuttle and move his treddles at his convenience. There is, however, this differences in the two cases, that in the factory, every member of the loom is so adjusted, that the driving force leaves the attendant nearly nothing at all to do, certainly no muscular fatigue to sustain, while it procures for him good, unfailing wages, besides a healthy workshop gratis; whereas the non-factory weaver, having everything to execute by muscular exertion, finds the labour irksome, makes in consequence innumerable short pauses, separately of little account, but great when added together; earns therefore proportionally low wages, while he loses his health by poor diet and the dampness of his hovel . . .”

Excerpt from The Philosophy of Manufacturers (1835), by Andrew Ure, a professor at the University of Glasgow and an enthusiast for the new manufacturing system

DOCUMENT 5

Here, then, is the “curse” of our factory-system; as improvements in machinery have gone on, the “avarice of masters” has prompted many to exact more labour from their hands than they were fitted by nature to perform, and those who have wished for the hours of labour to be less for all ages than the legislature would even yet sanction, have had no alternative but to conform more or less to the prevailing practice, or abandon the trade altogether. This has been the case with regard to myself and my partners. We have never worked more than seventy-one hours a week before Sir JOHN HOBHOUSES’S Act was passed. We then came down to sixty-nine; and since Lord ALTHORP’S Act was passed, in 1833, we have reduced the time of adults to sixty-seven and a half hours a week, and that of children under thirteen years of age to forty-eight hours in the week, though to do this latter has, I must admit, subjected us to much inconvenience, but the elder hands to more, inasmuch as the relief given to the child is in some measure imposed on the adult. But the overworking does not apply to children only; the adults are also overworked. The increased speed given to machinery within the last thirty years, has, in very many instances, doubled the labour of both.”

Excerpt from The Curse of the Factory System (1836) by John Fielden, a Lancashire factory owner
avatar
Mr. Fisher
Admin
Admin

Posts : 284
Student Rating : 6

Back to top Go down

Re: Industrial Revolution DBQ

Post  Dzazo on Thu Mar 12, 2015 11:05 am

The benefits of the economic and technological advances gained during the Industrial Revolution justify the ill treatment of workers during the time period. Use at least TWO of the following documents as evidence for arguing for/against this claim.

For document 1 you can clearly see how the factory workers were severely beaten for just coming late, falling asleep, or even just working too slow. This document is a testimony of Matthew Crabtree, a 22 year old called to testify before the Sadler Committee about his experiences as a child laborer in an English Factory. They asked him questions like “In those mills is chastisement towards the latter part of the day going on perpetually?” he answered: “Perpetually”. Or others like “So that you can hardly be in a mill without hearing constant crying?” He answered this shocking answer: “Never an hour, I believe.” This shows us that during that period of time they were punished for not working hard enough and they were punished severely. They were stabbed by a needle if they fell asleep and were whipped or just beaten if they were working too slowly. In document 4 it was from the factory owner’s perspective and they were saying that they should be happy that they are working, because if it wasn’t for them they would be poor and have no money to eat and probably die of hunger and starvation, he did admit that they beat them but for the excuse that they would fall asleep and not do the job, and therefore, not being paid and he said that in basically he is doing the a favor by waking them up, with a needle or beaten… They were also saying that because of the factories now the country became more powerful, economically and militarily. I think that the industrial revolution was horrible because it made people lose their jobs because of the machines and even if they did work they were miserable because of the poor treatments that they gave them. Also, there was a lot of pollution and because of that, nowadays we are having a lot of trouble with pollution. Also that was the start of machines, with was also a start to cell phones, iPhones, Televisions, Computers and everything and because of that now humanity has become lazier and foolish, they are barely conscious of what is happening in the real wrong. I also think that if the industrial revolution would not have taken place the world would’ve been a happier place, in my opinion.


Dzazo
Apprentice
Apprentice

Posts : 71
Student Rating : 2

Back to top Go down

View previous topic View next topic Back to top


 
Permissions in this forum:
You cannot reply to topics in this forum