studying for the exams part 2

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studying for the exams part 2

Post  Brock M. Hay on Fri May 25, 2012 7:34 pm


This is my second segment of the exam study guide. Here we go with chapter seven.

Chapter 7 Civilizations of the Americas

1. Civilizations of Middle America (156)
2. The world of the Incas (163)
3. Peoples of North America (168)

VOCAB

Tenochtitlan The capital of the Aztec empire located in what is known as today as Mexico city.

Chinampas Roads built on water using reeds and bambu sticks to build.

Malinche The very intelligent Aztec woman who was the translator for the Spanish and also said to be the lover of Cortez.

quipu The Inca colored string patterns used for accounting finances and stocks in the Inca economy.

Sapa Inca The "great Inca" or the supreme ruler of all of the Inca empire who is also considered to be a god.

Quechua The language spoken by the Incas.

Cuzco The capital city of the Inca empire and where the Sapa Inca lived. Located in the Andes mountains along with most of the empire.

Machu Picchu An Inca town that was never discovered or destroyed by the Spanish, and was only discovered one to two hundred years ago. Located on a mountain top.

CONCEPTS

a. Main geographical and cultural features of the Olmec, Mayan, Aztec, and Incan civilizations
We know extremely little about the Olmecs, we know that the Olmec civilization consisted of many villages with occasional pyramid like temples. They had a wealthy class of priests and aristocrats. They are mostly known for leaving behind gigantic forty toned stone heads, we have no idea how they moved these stones with their poor technology. They did invent a calendar too. The Mayas were located on the Yucatan peninsula in modern day Mexico. They are known for their gigantic steep temple/pyramids that remained the highest man made structure until a 1903 sky scraper was made. The Mayas had a hieroglyphic writing system, and made books that were created out of bark. They created an extremely accurate 365 day calendar, and a 260 day calendar based on the orbit of Venus. They are also known for creating the concept of zero. The Aztecs were located in the majority of Modern day Mexico, with their capital Tenochtitlan located in modern day Mexico city. They had good irrigation systems as well as roads that were on water called chinampas. In its culture their hierarchy was from highest to lowest; emperor, nobles judges and governors, warriors, farmers and merchants, then slaves. The Aztecs believed in the importance of sacrificing, and tearing the heart out of dozens of people daily, in order for the sun to rise again the next day and all life to continue. The Aztecs had a calendar as well, and they also had priests with basic medical skills. The Incas were based with three main regions along the western side of South America. First on the very coast, was large dessert land, almost impossible to grow anything, besides potatoes in some areas. To the east is the largest part, which is most of the Inca empire, the vast Andes mountain range. To the Northeastern part is the smallest region, the southwestern area of the Amazon rainforest belonged to the Incas. They had built a huge road system comparable to that of the Roman road system. They also had irrigation and banks that would lead the waste down the mountains and out of the mountain existing cities. They had advanced metal working and were able to make alloys, or mixtures of metals. They could complete surgery on the human skull, and had more modern antisetics than Europe. They believed that their Sapa Inca, or emperor was a god, and treated him with complete wealth and glory. He never wore the same thing twice, or settled for anything less than the best or rarest of all the region.

b. How European colonialism affected early Civilizations of the Americas (Cortez, Pizarro)
Colonists like Cortez and Pizarro destroyed the American civilizations. They stole so much gold, destroyed so many cities, that today there is only a handful left of Incas and Aztecs, and they scattered and hopeless. Without Cortez or Pizarro these civilizations may still be developing today as very wealthy nations that would be contributing to our world.

that's all for today guys, thanks for reading.
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Brock M. Hay
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