Chapter 12 Notes - The New Imperialism (1800-1914)

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Chapter 12 Notes - The New Imperialism (1800-1914)

Post  Mr. Fisher on Wed Apr 27, 2011 3:47 pm

Chapter 12

Section 1 : A western dominated world

1901: Edward VII inherited British throne, empire extended far beyond Britain
“the sun never sets on the British empire” said one writer
-The empire circled the globe, the sun always shone on some part of it
-Industrial Rev and growth in science/technology transformed the west. With new economic and political world, western nations sought to dominate the world.

New Imperialism
Imperialism: domination by one country of the political, economic or cultural life of another country or region.
-While European states gained territory on coasts of Africa and china, they had little influence on the lives of ppl in China, India or Africa.
1800s: Europe gained significant power. Strong centrally governed nation states emerged, Industrial Rev strengthened economies
-New Imperialism exploded out of a combination of causes

CAUSES

1. Economic Interests
-IR created needs that spurred overseas expansion
-Manufacturers wanted access to natural resources such as rubber, petroleum, manganese for steel, palm oil for machinery.
-hoped for new markets where they could sell factory goods

2. Political/Military interests
-Steam powered merchant ships and naval vessels needed bases around the world to take on coal and supplies
-Industrial powers seized islands/harbors to satisfy these needs.
-Nationalism played role too: France moved into West Africa, rivals Britain and Germany seized nearby lands to halt further expansion
-Western leaders claimed colonies were needed for national security and prestige

3. Humanitarian Goals
-many westerners had concern for their “little brothers” beyond the seas.
-missionaries, doctors, colonial officials, felt they had a duty to spread blessings of western civilization (medicine, law, Christianity)

4. Social Darwinism
-growing sense in the west of racial superiority
-many westerners embraced ideas of social Darwinism
-applied darwin’s ideas about natural selection and survival of the fittest to human societies.
-imperial conquest and destruction of weaker races were nature’s way of improving the human species (according to some).

Success of Western Imperialism (reasons for)
-1870-1914, imperialist nations gained control over much of the world
-leading the way were soldiers, merchants, settlers, missionaries, and explorers.
-In Europe, imperial expansion was beneficial to all classes, from bankers manufacturers, to workers
-reasons why it succeeded:

1. Weakness of nonwestern states
-European nations grew stronger in 1800’s, older civilizations were in decline, especially Ottoman middle east, Mughal India, Quing China.
-In west Africa, wars among African people and the draining effect of the slave trade undermined established empires, kingdoms and city-states
-New African states not strong enough to resist western onslaught
2. Western Advantages
-Europeans had advantage of strong economies, well organized governments, powerful armies and navies
-superior technology and medical knowledge played a roll too
-Machine guns, repeating rifles, steam driven warships also persuasive to Africans and Asians to accept western control

Resistance
-African and Asians strongly resisted western expansion into their lands
-some fought invaders even though they had no weapons equal to machine gun
-ruling groups tried to strengthen their societies by reforming their own Muslim, Hindu, or Confucian traditions.
-Western educated Africans and Asians organized nationalist movements to expel imperialists from their lands.

Criticism at Home
-In the West, a small group of anti-imperialists emerged
-some argued that colonialism was a tool of the rich, others called it immoral
-Westerners argued that they were moving toward greater democracy at home, but were imposing undemocratic rule on other people

Forms of Imperial Rule:

1. Colonies
Leading imperial powers Britain and France developed different kinds of colonial rule
-French practiced direct rule, sending officials and soldiers from France to administer their colonies
-goal was to impose French culture on their colonies and turn them into French provinces
-British relied on system of indirect rule
-they relied on sultans, chiefs, local rulers
-encouraged children of local ruling class to be educated in Britain
-Britain would still resort to military force if control was threatened in any way

2. Protectorates
-local rulers left in place but expected to follow advice of Europeans on issues such as trade or missionary activity
-cost less to run than a colony, didn’t require huge military commitment

3. Sphere of Influence
-outside power claimed exclusive investment or trading privileges.
-Europeans claimed spheres in china and US claimed latin america

Section 2: The Partition of Africa

-late 1800s: Britain, France, Germany, other Euro powers swept into africa
-despite resistance, tribal chiefs couldn’t prevent European conquest
-within 20 years, Europeans had carved up the continent and dominated millions of Africans

Africa in the early 1800’s
-Must look at Africa before European domination to understand the impact
-Africa- huge continent, 4 times larger than Europe
-people speak hundreds of languages and developed varied governments across the region
-some lived in large centralized states, others in village communities

North Africa
-includes enormous Sahara, and fertile land along Mediterranean
-since long before 1800 the region had close ties to Muslim world
-in early 1800s, much of N Africa remained under rule of declining Ottoman empire

West Africa
-grasslands of W Africa, Islamic reform movement brought change
-Leaders like Usman dan Fodio preached jihad, a holy struggle, to revive and purify Islam.
-under these leaders, several new muslim states arose, built of trade, farming, herding
-In forest regions, strong states like the Asante kingdom had arisen
-the Asante traded with Europeans and muslims and controlled several smaller states

East Africa
-Islam had long influenced the east coast of Africa, where port cities like Mombasa and Kilwa carried profitable trade
-cargoes were often slaves, marched from interior to the coast to be shipped to Middle east.
-Ivory and copper were also exchanged for goods such as cloth and firearms from India

Southern Africa
-early 1800’s: S Africa was in turmoil.
-Shaka united the Zulu nation. His conquests set of mass migrations and wars, creating chaos across much of the region.
-by 1830’s, Zulues were also battling the Boers, who were migrating north from the Capy Colony.

Slave trade
-Early 1800’s – European nations began to outlaw transatlantic slave trade, took years to completely end it.
-East African slave trade continued to middle east and asia.
Some people in Britain and USA helped freed slaves resettle in Africa. 1787: the British organized Sierra Leone in West Africa as a colony for former slaves.
-Later, some free blacks from USA settled nearby Liberia
1847: Liberia become an independent republic

European Contacts increase
-1500s-1700s : Europeans traded along African coast
-difficult geography and diseases kept them from reaching interior
-Medical advances and river steamships changed that in the 1800’s.

Explorers
-early 1800’s: European explorers began pushing into interior
-Adventurers like Mungo Park and Richard Burton set out to map the course and sources of great African rivers such as the Niger, Nile, and Congo.
-explorers were fascinated by African geography, had little understanding of the people they met.

Missionaries
Catholic and Protestant missionaries followed the explorers, seeking to convert people to Christianity
-Missionaries were sincere in desire to help africans
-built schools, medical clinics alongside churches, focused on evils of slave trade
-paternalistic view of Africans – as children who needed guidance
-urged africans to reject their own traditions in favor of Western civilization

Livingstone
-best known explorer-missionary was Dr. David Livingstone
-for 30 years he crisscrossed Africa, writing about the many ppl he met . Had more sympathy and less bias than most europeans
-relentlessly opposed slave trade. Wanted to open up interior of Africa to Christianity and trade
-Livingstone blazed a trail that others soon followed
-1869: journalist Henry Stanley trekked into Central Africa to find Livingstone, finally tracked him down in 1871 in what is today Tanzania, greeting him with “Dr. Livingstone I presume?”

Africans resist Imperialism
-Europeans met armed resistance across the continent
-Algerians battled French for years
-Samori Toure fought French forces in W Africa where he was building his own empire
-British fought Zulus in Southern Africa and the Asante in West Africa
-When their king was exiled, the Asante put themselves under the command of their Queen, Yaa Asantewaa
-she led the fight against the British in the last Asante war
-another woman who became a military leader was Nehanda, of the Shona tribe in Zimbabwe
-although a clever tactician, Nehanda was captured and executed
-the memory of her achievements inspired later generations to fight for freedom.

-In East Africa, Germans fought wars against people like the Yao and Herero
-fighting was especially fierce in the Maji Maji Rebellion of 1905.
-The Germans triumphed only after using a scorched earth policy – burning hundreds of acres of farmland, leaving thousands of locals to die of starvation.

Ethiopia Survives
-Successful resistance was mounted in Ethiopia
-Ancient Christian kingdom had survived in the highlands of East Africa
-like feudal Europe, it had been divided up among a number of rival princes
-Late 1800’s – a reforming ruler, Menelik II, began to modernize his country
-he hired European experts to plan modern roads and bridges and set up a western school system.
-Imported latest weapons and officers to help train army.
-When Italy invaded Ethiopia in 1896, Menelik was prepared
-Battle of Adowa, ethiopians smashed Italian invaders
-Ethiopia was the only African nation aside from Liberia to preserve its independence.

New African Elite
-during age of imperialism, a western educated African elite (upper class) emerged
-some middle class Africans admired western ways and rejected their own culture
-by early 1900’s, African leaders were forging nationalist movements to pursue self-determination and independence.


Section 3: European Challenges to the Muslim World

-Napoleon’s Egyptian campaign highlighted Ottoman decline and opened new era of European contact with Muslim world.
-Early 1800’s – European countries nibbled at the edge of Muslim world. Before long, they would strike the heartlands.
In 1500’s, three giant Muslim empires ruled much of the world.

Mughals – India
Ottomans - Middle East
Safavids – Iran

By 1700’s, all three muslim empires were in decline.
-Causes: central governments lost control over powerful groups (landowning nobles, military elite, urban craft guilds)
-corruption was widespread, in some places muslim scholars and religious leaders allied with state, in others, they helped stir discontent against government.

Islamic Reform Movement
-In 1700’s and early 1800’s, reform movements sprang up across Muslim world
-Most stressed religious piety and strict rules of behavior
-Many wanted to recapture purity and simplicity of Muhammad’s original teachings.
-Wahhabi movement in Arabia – led by Arab prince against Ottoman rule.
-Revolt was crushed but the movement persisted.
-Islamic revivals rose in Africa too.
-Usman dan Fodio led struggle to reform muslim practices
-In Sudan, S of Egypt, Muhammad Ahmad announced he was Mahdi, the long awaited savior of the faith
-in 1880s, mahdi and his followers fiercely resisted British expansion into the region.

European Imperialism
-Muslim empires faced western imperialism
-Through diplomacy and military threats, European powers won treaties giving them favorable trading terms
-They demanded special rights for Europeans residing in Muslim lands

Problems for Ottoman Empire
-at its height, the Ottoman empire extended across the middle east, North Africa, and SE Europe
-By early 1800’s, it faced serious challenges
-Ambitious pashas, or provincial rulers, increased their power.
-Economic problems and corruption led to the decay

Nationalist Revolts
-Ideas of nationalism spread from W. Europe. Internal revolts weakened multiethnic Ottoman empire
-subject peoples in Eastern Europe, Middle East, and North Africa threatened to break away
-Balkans: Greeks, Serbs, Bulgarians, and Romanians gained their independence
-revolts against Ottoman rule erupted in Arabia, Lebanon, and Armenia.
-Ottomans suppressed uprisings, but another valuable territory, Egypt, fell out of their control.

European Pressure
-European states sought to benefit from decline of Ottoman.
-France seized Algeria in 1830’s and hoped for more
-Russia schemed to gain control of the Bosporus and Dardanelles straits that would give Russians access to the Mediterranean Sea.
-Britain tried to stop Russia’s ambitions which threatened their own power
-1898, new German empire jumped on bandwagon by building a Berlin to Baghdad railway.

Efforts to Westernize
-Since late 1700’s, several Ottoman rulers saw need for reform and looked to West for ideas
-reorganized bureaucracy and tax collection, built railroads, improved education, hired Euro officers to train a modern military
-Young men went west to study new sciences and technology, many returned with western ideas about democracy and equality
-Reforms brought better medical care and revitalized farming. Better living conditions led to population explosion, competition for best land led to unrest.
-Many government officials rejected changes inspired by foreign culture
-repressive sultans rejected reform and tried to rebuild autocratic power enjoyed by earlier rulers

Young Turks
-1890’s a group of liberals formed a movement called the Young Turks
-insisted that reform was only way to save the empire
1908 – Young Turks overthrew the sultan. Before they could achieve reforms, the Empire was thrown into world war that erupted in 1914.

Massacre of Armenians
-Ottomans traditionally allowed minorities to live in their own communities and practice their own religions.
-By 1890s, nationalism ignited new tensions, especially between Turkish nationalists and minority peoples who sought their own states
-these tensions triggered a brutal genocide of the Armenians, a Christian people concentrated in the eastern mountains of the empire
-Genocide: deliberate attempt to destroy an entire religious or ethnic group.
-Muslim Turks distrusted Armenians and accused them of supporting Russian plans against Ottoman empire.
-When Armenians protested, sultan had tens of thousands of them slaughtered.
-over next 25 yrs, a million or more died.

Section 4: The British Take Over India

-Ranjit Singh riled large Sikh empire in NW India during early 1800’s.
-had cordial dealings with British but saw where their ambitions were headed.
-predicted that one day all of India would be held by British
-Not long after his death in 1830 the Brits conquered Sikh empire, adding 100,000 square miles to their steadily growing lands.

-early 1600’s: British East India Company won trading rights on fringe of Mughal empire.
-As mughal power declined, the company’s influence grew. By Mid-1800’s, in controlled 3/5ths of India.

Exploiting Diversity
-British were able to conquer such a vast territory by exploiting the diversity of India
-Even when Mughal power was at its height, India was home to many cultures
-When Mughal power crumbled, India fragmented and was unable to unite against the newcomers.
-Brits took advantage of divisions by encouraging competition and disunity among rival princes.
-Where diplomacy didn’t work, superior weaponry overpowered local rulers.

British Policies
-Main goal was to make money, British officials got very rich
-Company also worked to improve roads, preserve peace, reduce banditry.
--early 1800’s, British officials introduced western education and legal procedures
-Missionaries tried to convert Indians to Christianity, which they felt was superior to Indian religions
-British also pressed for social change – worked to end slavery and the caste system, and to improve position of women in the family
-One law outlawed Sati (hindu custom practiced by upper classes, calling for widow to join her husband in heath by throwing herself on his funeral fire).

Causes of Discontent
-1850’s – East India Company made some unpopular moves

1. required sepoys (Indian soldiers) to serve anywhere, either in India or overseas.
-for high caste Hindus, overseas travel was an offense against their religion.

2. Passed law that allowed Hindu widows to remarry
-Hindus viewed this move as a British conspiracy to undermine their beliefs

1857: British issued new rifles to sepoys. Troops told to bite off tips of cartridges before loading them into rifle. Cartridges were greased with animal fat, which was forbidden to Muslims. Troops refused to load rifles and were sent home without pay.

Rebellion and Aftermath
-Angry Sepoys rose up against British officers
-Sepoy rebellion swept across northern and central India
-several sepoy regiments marched off to Dehli, the old Mughal capital, where they hailed the last Mughal ruler as their leader.

-sepoys brutally massacred British men women and children in some places, but Brits soon crushed the revolt.
-Took terrible revenge for earlier losses, torching villages and slaughtering thousands of unarmed Indians
-Sepoy Rebellion left a bitter legacy of fear, hatred, and mistrust on both sides.
-also brought major changes in British policy
1858 – parliament ended the rule of the East India Company, and put India directly under the British crown.
-Sent more troops to India, taxing Indians to pay the cost of these occupying forces.
-slowed reforms that angered Hindus and Muslims, but continued to develop India for Britain’s own economic benefit.


Section 5: China and the New Imperialism

-for centuries, Chinese regulations ensured that China had a favorable balance of trade with other nations.
-balance of trade: difference between how much a country imports and how much it exports.
-by 1800’s, western nations were using their growing power to gain more influence over East Asia

-before 1800’s, Chinese rulers placed strict limits on foreign traders.
-European traders restricted to small area in southern china.
-china sold them solk, porcelain, tea, in exchange for gold and solver
-Under this arrangement, China enjoyed a trade surplus (exporting more than importing)
-Westerners had a trade deficit with China (buying more from Chinese than they sold to them).
-by late 1700’s, two developments ransformed China’s relationship with the Western world.
1. China entered a period of decline
2. The Industrial revolution created a need for expanded markets for European goods. Gave West superior military power.

The Opium War
-During lat 1700’s, British merchants began making huge profits by trading opium grown in India for Chinese tea, which was popular in Britain
-Soon, many Chinese had become addicted to the drug.
-Silver flowed out of China in payment for the drug, disrupting the economy
-Chinese government outlawed opium and executed Chinese drug dealers
-British refused, insisting on right of free trade.
1839: Chinese warships clashed with British merchants, triggering the Opium war
-British gunboats equipped with latest firepower bombarded Chinese coastal and river ports
-With outdated weapons and fighting tactics, Chinese were easily defeated.

Unequal treaties
1842 – Britain made china accept the Treaty of Nanjing
-Britain received a huge indemnity (payment for losses in the war)
-Britain also gained the island of Hong Kong
-China had to open 5 ports to foreign trade and grant British citizens in China extraterritoriality (the right to live under their own laws and be treated in their own courts)
-treaty was the first of a series of unequal treaties that forced China to make concessions to western powers.
-During mid 1800’s, under pressure from the west, china agreed to open more ports to foreign trade and let Christian missionaries pass through.


Internal Problems
-By the 1800’s, the Qing dynasty was in decline
-Irrigation systems and canals poorly maintained, led to massive flooding of the Huang He valley
-population explosion that began a century earlier created hardship for peasants
-Extravagant court, tax evasion by the rich, widespread official corruption added to peasants’ burden.

Taiping Rebellion
-As poverty/misery increased, peasants rebelled.
Taiping Rebellion 1850-1864 – probably most devastating peasant revolt in history
-Leader Hong Xiuquan was a village schoolteacher. inspired by religious visions, set himself up as revolutionary prophet.
-influenced by Christian missionaries, Hong endorsed reform, community ownership of property, equality of women and men. Above all he called for an end to hated Qing dynasty.
-Taiping rebels won control over large parts of China, and held out for 14 years. With help of loyal regional governors and generals, the government crushed the rebellion in the end.
Taiping Rebellion almost defeated Qing Dynasty.
-Estimated that it caused deaths of 20-30 million Chinese
During rebellion, Europeans kept pressure on China. Russia seized lands in Northern China.

Reform Efforts
-Mid 1800’s Educated Chinese divided over need to adopt western ways
-most scholar officials saw no reason for new industries because China’s weath and taxes came from the land
-Scholar officials also disapproved ideas of western missionaries, who’s emphasis on individual choice challenged Confucian order.
-Saw western technology as dangerous because it threatened Confucian ways that had served China successfully for so long. –Imperial court was the center of conservative opposition
-by late 1800’s, empress Ci Xi had gained power
-strong willed ruler, she surrounded herself with wise advisers who were deeply committed to Confucian traditions.

Self Strengthening Movement
-late 1860’s – reformers launched the self strengthening movement
-imported western technology, setting up factories to make modern weapons
-developed shipyards, railroads, mining, light industry
-Chinese translated western works on science, government, and economy
-the movement made little progress because the government didn’t rally behind it

War With Japan
-Western powers nearby Japan moved rapidly ahead
-Japan began to modernize after 1868. Then joined western imperialists in the competition for a global empire
-1894 – Japanese pressure on China led to the Sino-Japanese war
-ended in disaster for China with Japan gaining the island of Taiwan off the coast of China
-When two powers met at the peace table, there was a telling difference as Japanese officials were dressed in suits and Chinese in traditional robes.

Spheres of influence
-crushing defeat revealed China’s weakness
-Western powers moved quickly to carve out spheres of influence along Chinese coast.
-British took Yangzi River valley
-French acquired territory near colony of Indochina
-Germany and Russia gained territory in Northern China.

Hundred days of Reform
-Defeated by Japan and humiliated by westerners, Chinese looked for a scapegoat.
-Reformers blamed conservative officials for not modernizing China
-they urged conservative leaders to stop looking back at China’s past golden ages and instead to modernize as Japan had
-1898 – young emperor Guang Xu launched the 100 days of reform
-new laws set out to modernize civil service exams, government, encourage new industry
-conservatives soon rallied against the reform effort, emperor was imprisoned and the aging empress Ci Xi reasserted control

Qing Dynasty Falls
-as century ended, China was in turmoil
-Anger grew against Christian missionaries who belittled Chinese thinkers like Confucius
-presence of foreign troops another source of discontent
-Foreigners protected by extraterritoriality ignored Chinese laws and lived in their own communities.

Boxer Uprising
-Antiforeign feeling exploded in Boxer Uprising
-1899 – group of Chinese formed a secret society, the Righteous Harmonious Fists
-Westerners watching them train in marital arts dubbed them Boxers
-goal was to drive out foreign devils who were polluting the land with their un-chinese ways
-1900- boxers attacked foreigners across china
-western powers and Japan organized multinational force, crushing the Boxers and rescuing foreigners in Beijing.

Aftermath
-China once again had to make concessions to foreigners
-defeat forced Chinse conservatives to support westernization
-China admitted women to schools, stressed science and math in place of Confucian thought
-China expanded economically, mining, shipping , railroads, banking, and exports grew

Though boxer rebellion failed, flames of Chinese nationalism spread
-reformers wanted to strengthen China’s government
-by early 1900’s, they introduced a constitutional monarchy, some called it a republic.
-Passionate spokesperson for Chinese republic was Sun Yixian, who organized the Revolutionary Alliance
-Goal was to rebuild China on three principles of the people
1. nationalism (freeing China from foreign domination)
2. democracy (representative government)
3. livelihood (economic security for all Chinese)

Mr. Fisher
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