Chapter 2/3 Notes: The First Global Age: Europe, the Americas, and Africa

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Chapter 2/3 Notes: The First Global Age: Europe, the Americas, and Africa

Post  Mr. Fisher on Fri Dec 10, 2010 12:14 am

Chapter 2 – Section 1 – The Search for Spices

-we take pepper for granted today, to Europeans in the past, it was as valuable as gold.
-Ancient Romans paid as much as $125 for 12 ounces of pepper.
-During middle ages, pepper at local supermarket would have paid a year’s rent.
-by late 1400’s, desire to share in spice trade of the East inspired Europeans to explore the oceans

-Europeans traded with Asia long before Renaissance. Crusades introduced Europeans to many luxury goods from Asia
-Later when Mongol empire united much of Asia in the 1200’s and 1300’s, asian goods flowed to Europe along complex overland trade routes.
-Breakup of Mongol empire and the Black Death disrupted trade. By 1400’s, Europe was recovering from plague.
-As population grew, so did demand for goods.
-Most desired goods: spices – cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, pepper.
-people used spices to preserve food, flavor dried meat, and to make medicines and perfumes.
-chief source of spices was the Moluccas, and island chain in present day Indonesia, which Europeans called the spice islands then.

Motives
-by 1400’s, muslim and Italian merchants controlled most of the trade between Asia and Europe
-Muslim traders brought prized goods to eastern Mediterranean ports.
-Traders from Venice and other Italian cities brought cargoes to European markets.
-Europeans wanted to gain direct access to the riches of Asia.
-To do so, the Atlantic powers (Portugal and spain) sought a trade route to Asia that bypassed the Mediterranean.
-wealth was not only motive to set sail. Some voyagers still motivated by centuries old desire to crusade against the Muslims.
-renaissance spirit of inquiry motivated people to learn more about lands beyond Europe.

Improved Technology
-Cartographers (mapmakers) created more accurate maps and sea charts
-European sailors used the astrolabe, an instrument developed by Ancient Greeks to determine latitude at sea.
-larger and better ships. Portuguese developed the caravel, which combined square sails of European ships with Aram lateen, or triangular sails.
-also adapted sternpost rudder and numerous masts of Chinese ships. Also added more weaponry to ships, including sturdier cannons.

Portugal Sails Eastward
-small nation on western edge of spain, led the way in exploration
-by 1400’s - strong enough to expand into Muslim North Africa
-by 1415 – Portuguese seized Ceuta (say oo tah) on N. African coast.
-victories inspired Prince Henry (Henry the Navigator) young son of Portugal’s King John 1 and Queen Philippa (read bio box)
-Prince Henry embodied crusading drive and spirit of exploration
-he hoped to expand Christianity and find the source of African gold.

In Sagres (southern Portugal) Henry gathered scientists, cartographers, other experts.
-sent out ships that slowly worked their way south to explore the western coast of Africa.
-Henry died in 1460 but Portuguese continued qust.
1488 – Bartholomeu Diaz rounded southern tip of Africa, which became kmnown as Cape of Good Hope (opened up sea route to Asia)

On to India
1497 – Vasco da Gama led 4 ships around Cape of Good Hope
-after 10 month voyage, da Gama reached spice port of Calcut on W coast of India
-lost half their ships, many died of hunger/thirst/scurvy
-voyage highly profitable to survivors in spice cargo (3,000 percent profit)

Chap 3 section 1 Conquest in the Americas

Summary -desire for wealth, religious zeal, encouraged Spanish explorers to travel to Americas
-Aztecs and Incas, weakened by disunity and disease, were victims of superior Spanish military technology.
-Spanish empire in the Americas brought power and wealth to Spain
-meanwhile, native American peoples struggled to survive.

-1492 –Columbus landed on the islands now called West Indies, in the Caribbean.
-encountered Taino people, lived in villages, farming communities, were friendly and generous to Spanish
-friendly relations evaporated quickly
-spanish conquistadors (conquerors) followed in Columbus’s wake and settled on islands of Hispaniola, Cuba, Puerto Rico
-seized gold ornaments worn by Tainos, made them pan for more gold.
-newcomers forced Tainos to convert to Christianity

-invisible invader also at work – disease
-Euros unknowingly carried diseases (smallpox, measles, influenza) to Natives, who had no immunity.
-spread rapidly, wiping out entire villages at a time
0Native American population of Caribbean islands declined by 90% in the 1500’s.
-Cycle of disease and death repeated in many other places across Western Hemisphere

Conqistadors
-After Spanish explorers probed coasts of Americas, spread stories of empires rich in gold
-flood of adventurers followed promise of riches
-Among earliest conquistadors was Hernan Cortes.
Cortes landed on coast of mexico in 1519 with 600 men, 16 horses, and a few canons
-headed inland towards Tenochtitlan, helped by Malinche, young Indian woman who served as adviser/translator
-Malinche knew both Mayan and Aztec languages, and learned Spanish quickly.
-Cortes learned from her that many conquered ppl hated Aztec overlords.
-Aztecs sacrificed thousands of captives to their gods each year.
-Malinche helped Cortes arrange alliances with discontented groups. Would help one another fight Aztecs

-messengers brought word of newcomers to Aztec emperor Moctezuma
-he wondered if leader of light skinned strangers might be Quetzalcoatl, god king who had long ago vowed to return from east
-Moctezuma sent gifts of gold and silver but asked strangers not to continue to Tenochtitlan
-Cortes didn’t turn back, fought and negotiated, led forces inland towards capital.
-when they arrived they were dazzled by grandeur of city

-Moctezuma welcomed Cortes to capital, but relationship quickly soured. Aztecs drove Spanish out
-Moctezuma killed in fighting.
-Cortes retreated to plan another assault
-1521: Cortes and Indian allies captured and demolished Tenochtitla. On its ruins, Spanish built Mexico City

Section 2: Spanish and Portuguese Colonies in the Americas.

-Flood of Spanish settlers and missionaries followed the conquistadors
-wherever they went, they claimed land and people for their king and church.
-where there was resistance, they imposed their will with force
-As observant Christians, they thought it was their duty to bring their religion and civilization to the Indians.
-In the end, a new culture emerged that reflected European, Native American, and African traditions.

Ruling the Spanish Empire
-In the 1500’s Spain claimed a vast empire from California to South America.
-they divided these lands into 5 provinces, the most important were New Spain (mexico) and Peru.

Spain determined to keep strict control over its empire
-King set up Council of the Indies to pass laws for the colonies.
-King appointed Viceroys (representatives) who ruled in his name in each province. Lesser officials (advisory councils of Spanish settlers) helped viceroy rule.
-Council of Indies in Spain monitored colonial officials to make sure they didn’t assume too much authority.

Catholic Church
-To Spain, winning over Natives to Christianity was as important as winning land.
-Church worked closely with government to convert Native Americans to Christianity.
-As empire expanded, Church authority expanded along with it.
-missionaries baptized thousands of Native Americans
-built missionary churches and worked to turn new converts into loyal subjects of Catholic King of Spain
-Forcibly imposed European culture over Native American culture.
-introduced European clothing, Spanish language, new crafts (carpentry, locksmithing)

Economy
-Spain closely controlled economic activities, especially trade
-Colonists exported raw materials ONLY to spain, and could ONLY buy Spanish manufactured goods.
-laws forbade colonists from trading with other European nations or even with other colonies
-Most valuable resources sipped from Spanish America to Spain were silver and gold.

Sugar cane introduced to West Indies and elsewhere, became profitable resource.
-cane was refined into sugar, molasses, run
-had to be grown on plantations large estates run by an owner or the owner’s overseer.
-finding enough workers needed to make plantations profitable was a major problem.
-at first, Spanish monarchs granted conquistadors encomiendas, or the right to demand labor from Native Americans in a particular area.
-conquistadors used this system to force Native Americans to work under most brutal conditions.
-resistors were hunted and killed
-disease, starvation, cruel treatment caused drastic declines in population

Bartolome de las Casas
-bold priest condemned evils of the encomienda system.
-sent vivid reports to spain detailing horrors that Spanish rule had brought to Native Americans and pleaded with the king to end the abuse.
-After this, Spain passed New Laws of the Indies in 1542 forbidding enslavement of Native Americans.
-laws were meant to end abuses of Natives, but Spain was too far away to enforce them
-Many Natives were forced to become peons (workers forced to labor for landlord to pay off debt).
Landlords advanced them food, tools, seeds, creating debts that they couldn’t pay off in their lifetime

Labor from Africa
-to fill labor shortage, Las Casas urged colonists to import workers from Africa
-Africans immune to tropical diseases, had skills in farming, mining, metal working
-Las Casas regretted that advice later because it furthered brutal African slave trade
-Spanish began bringing Africans as slaves to Americas by 1530’s.
-As demand for sugar increased, settlers imported millions of African slaves
-forced to wkri n fields, mines, in houses of wealthy land owners
-in time, Africans and American born descendents greatly outnumbered European Settlers in West Indies and South America.

Section 3 – Struggle for North America

-in 1600’s, other European powers moved into the Americas and began building settlements
-France, Netherlands, England, Sweden, joined Spain in claiming parts of N. America
-At first, Europeans were disappointed. N America did not yield vast treasure or a water passage to Asia they hoped for
-Before long, English and French were profiting from tobacco farms in Virginia, fishing off N. Atlantic coast, and trading fur from New England to Canada
-By 1700s, France and England controlled large parts of North America
-As colonies grew, they developed their own governments, different from each other and from Spanish Am.

Building New France
-By early 1500’s, French fishing ships crossed Atlantic each year to harvest rich catches of cod off Newfoundland, Canada.
-French rulers at home paid little attention at first to Canada (New France they called it)(distracted by wars)
-Not until 1608 did Samuel de Champlain build first permanent French settlements in Quebec.
-Missionaries spread Christianity to Native Americans soon after, advancing into wilderness for conversion
-
French explorers and fur traders were helped by Native American allies, and traveled inland. Claiming vast territory.
-Soon, France’s new empire extended from Quebec to the Great Lakes and down the Mississippi to Louisiana and the Gulf of Mexico.
-They sought settlers to farm the land, but harsh Canadian climate deterred them
-Many abandoned farming in favor of fur trapping and trading.
-Faced a hard life in wilderness but European demand for fur ensured good prices

Government policy
-By late 1600’s, French king Louis XIV set out to strengthen royal power and boost revenues (income from taxes) from his overseas empire
-appointed officials to oversee justice/economic activities in New France
-Also sent more settlers and solders to North America
Louis prohibited Protestants from settling in New France
-By early 1700’s, French forts, missions, trading posts, extended from Quebec to Louisiana.

13 English Colonies
-English build first permanent colony at Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607.
-Early years disastrous, many settlers died of starvation and disease, the rest survived with help from Natives
-Settlers started to grow and export tobacco, a crop learned about from the Indians
-1620 - other English settlers, the Pilgrims, landed at Plymouth, Massachusetts.
-seeking religious freedom rather than profit.
-Before coming home, they signed the Mayflower Compact (agreement among people), in which they set out guidelines for governing their colony (important early step toward self-government) QUOTE
-Many pilgrims died in early years of Plymouth colony.
Indians taught them to grow corn and helped them to survive in the new land

-In 1600’s and 1700’s the English established 13 colonies:
Virginia (1607)
Massachusetts (1620)
New Hampshire (1623)
Maryland (1634)
Connecticut (1635)
Rhode Island (1636)
Delaware (1638)
North Carolina (1653) South Carolina (1663)
New Jersey (1664)
New York (1664)
Pennsylvania (1682)
Georgia (1732)

Growth
-In the 1600’s and 1700’s, the English established 13 colonies.
-Some were set up as commercial ventures for profit (Virginia and New York)
-others were set up has havens for persecuted religious groups (Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Maryland)
-In New England, many settlers were farmers who transferred to North America a similar village life to what they had in England.
-In parts of the South, there emerged a plantation economy based on tobacco, rice, and other crops (cotton)
-English colonies needed workers to clear land and raise crops. Crowing # of Africans brought to colonies and sold as slaves. In several colonies, slaves outnumbered settlers.

Government
-Like rulers of Spain and France, English monarchs asserted control over their American colonies
-Appointed royal governers to oversee colonial affairs, had parliament pass laws to regulate trade
-comparatively, English colonists enjoyed large degree of self government
-each colony had its own representative assembly elected by propertied men, made decisions on local issues
-While English citizens were gaining certain legal/political rights, the American colonists expected to enjoy the same rights

Turbulent Centuries in Africa – section 4.

European Outposts in Africa
-1400’s – Portuguese ships explore coast of West Africa looking for Sea Route to India
-built small forts along coast to trade for gold, collect food and water, repair ships
-lacked power to push into interior, but attacked coastal cities of E Africa (Mombasa, Malindi) expelled Arabs who controlled trade network, took over thriving commerce for themselves

-gained little profit from victories, by 1600, the coastal cities sunk into poverty
--other European nations followed – Dutch, English, French, establishing forts along w coast, exchanging muskets, tools, cloth for gold, ivory, hides, slaves

Atlantic Slave Trade
-1500’s – Slaves became most important trade commodity to Europeans
-Slavery had existed around the world since ancient times (Egypt, Greece, Rome, Persia, Aztecs)

-Atlantic slave trade began in 1500’s to fill need for labor in Spain’s American empire
-over next 300 yrs it grew into huge profitable business
-each year, tens of thousands of enslaved Africans were shipped across Atlantic to work on tobacco and sugar plantations in Americas
-Relied on African rulers to seize captives in the interior and bring them to coastal trading posts
-the captives were traded for textiles, metals rum, tobacco, weapons
-as demand for slaves increased in americas, demand intensified.

Triangular trade
-Atlantic slave trade formed one part of three legged trade network called triangular trade.
First Leg: merchant ships manufactured brought goods to Africa, traded for slaves
Second Leg (middle passage): slaves transported to West Indies, traded for sugar, molasses, raw materials
Third Leg: raw materials shipped to Europe or European colonies in Americas

Middle passage
-Once purchased, Africans packed below decks of slave ships
-hundreds of men women and children crammed into single vessel
-slave ships became “floating coffins” on which up to half of Africans on board died from disease/mistreatment
-some resisted, tried to take over ship, return to Africa
-others committed suicide by leaping overboard

-in 1500’s, approx 2,000 african slaves sent to Americans each year
-by 1780’s when slave trade at its peak, 80,000 a year
-when slave trade ended in mid 1800’s, estimated that between 11 and 13 million Africans had reached the Americas, with many more dying on the middle passage.

Changes in Europe

Columbian Exchange
-March 1493 – Columbus returns to spain bringing with him “new” plants and animals found in Americas
-later, he returned to the americas with 1200 settlers and a collection if European animals and plants
-in a way, Columbus began a global exchange that would have a profound effect on the world.
-people, plants, animals as well as technology and disease.

New Foods

From Americas -> Europe
-tomatoes, pumpkins, peppers, CORN, POTATO (easy to grow, helped feed Europe’s growing pop)
-Corn spread across Europe and to Africa/Asia quickly

From Europe -> Americas
-wheat, grapes, and from Africa/Asia – bananas and sugar cane
-cattle, pigs, goats, chickens, added protein to Native American diet
-HORSES/DONKEYS changed lives of Natives dramatically (horse gave nomadic ppl of Western North America a new, more effective way to hunt buffalo

Impact on population
-transfer of food crops from continent to continent took time, but by 1700’s, corn potatoes, beans, tomatoes, contributed to population growth around the world (other factors, but this the key cause)
-Columbian exchange sparked migration of millions of people
-vast movement of people led to transfer of ideas and technology and language

Commercial Revolution
-opening of links with Asia, Africa, Americas, had significant economic consequences for Europeans
-upsurge in prices (price revolution) and the rise of modern capitalism

Price Revolution
-economic cycle that involves a rise in prices linked to sharp increase in amount of money available is called “inflation”
-causes: as population grew, demand for goods and services rose. Because goods were scarce, sellers could raise their prices
-inflation also fueled by increased flow of silver and gold.
-By mid-1500’s, tons of these metals were flowing into Europe from Americas. Much of it used to produce coins. Increased money in circulation, combined with scarcity of goods, caused prices to rise.

Growth of Capitalism
-expanded trade and growth of colonies spurred growth of European capitalism (investment of money for profit)
-Entrepreneurs (enterprising merchants) organized, managed, and assumed risks of doing business.
-As trade increased, entrepreneurs expanded overseas ventures (they were risky)
-Capitalist investors were more willing to take the risks when demand and prices were high.
-therefore, price revolution boosted capitalism
-entrepreneurs and capitalists made up a new business class devoted to making profit, changed local European economy into international trading system.

Mr. Fisher
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