Chapter 1 Notes: The Renaissance and Reformation 1300-1650

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Chapter 1 Notes: The Renaissance and Reformation 1300-1650

Post  Mr. Fisher on Wed Dec 08, 2010 9:46 am

Chapter 14 – The Renaissance and Reformation 1300-1650

Big Events

- Renaissance began in Italy and later spread to Northern Europe
- Reached its peak in painting, sculpture, and architecture
- The intellectual movement known as humanism stressed the study of classical Greek/Roman cultures and development of the individual
- Reformers Martin Luther and John Calvin challenged church corruption and eventually broke away from the Roman Catholic church entirely.
- In response, Catholic Church undertook its own reform movement
- Widespread intolerance and persecution by Protestants/Catholics
- Scientific Revolution brought startling discoveries by individuals like Copernicus, Newton, Galileo, that changed the way Europeans viewed the physical world and humans role within it.

The Renaissance in Italy

-The Renaissance began in Italy and spread North to the rest of Europe
-Why was Italy the birthplace of the renaissance?

1. Renaissance artists had a renewed interest in the culture of Ancient Rome. Because Italy was the center of the Roman empire, it was a logical place for the rebirth to begin.
-Architectural remains, statues, coins, inscriptions – all reminders or Roman achievement

2. Italian Cities survived the Middle Ages. Wasn’t hit as hard by plague as other countries.
-City states in north like Florence, Milan, Venice, Genoa, grew into centers of trade/manufac
-Rome in central Italy, and Naples in the south, also contributed to the cultural revival.

3. Wealthy/powerful merchant class in the city states promoted cultural rebirth.
Merchants had political and economic power, and their interests helped shaped the Italian Renaissance. They stressed education and individual achievement, and spent a lot of $ to support the arts.

Florence more than any other city was the heartbeat of the Italian Ren. Like Ancient Athens, it produced many gifted poets, artists, architects, scientists, in a short period of time.
-By 1400’s, Medici family of Florence organized a banking business that expanded into other ventures. They were among the richest merchants in Europe, had their own palace, and their wealth turned into political power.
- Cosimo de Medici gained control of Florence’s government in 1434 and family continued as uncrowned rulers for many years.

What was the Renaissance?
-time of creativity and change in many areas: political, social, economic, cultural
-most important change took place in the way people viewed themselves and their place in the world.
-didn’t break completely with its medieval past – church still had great power
-Renaissance produced new attitudes. Unlike medieval scholars who focused on life after death, Ren. thinkers explored the richness of human experience in the here and now.
-focus on individual achievement; the ideal person was one with talents in many fields.

-Renaissance supported spirit of adventure/curiosity that led people to explore new worlds.
-Columbus who sailed to the Americas in 1492 represented that spirit.
So did Copernicus, a polish scientist who revolutionized the way ppl viewed the universe.

Humanism – intellectual movement that focused on worldly subjects rather than on the religious issues that occupied medieval thinkers.
-Most humanist thinkers were still Christians, but hoped to use wisdom of ancients to increase understanding of current times.
-Humanists believed education should stimulate one’s creative powers. They studied ancient texts in light of their own experiences.

Sec 2: The Renaissance Moves North

-Unlike Italy, northern Europe recovered slowly from the destruction of the Black Death.
-Only after 1450 did the north experience the economic growth that had supported the Renaissance in Italy a century earlier.
-Northern Renaissance began in prosperous cities of Flanders, a region that included parts of modern day France, Belgium, and the Netherlands.
-Spain, France, Germany, and England experienced their cultural rebirth in the 1500’s.

Albrecht Durer
– German artist, traveled to Italy I 1494 to study techniques of the Italian masters.
-Upon returning home he employed these new technique in paintings and engravings (artist etches a design on a metal plate with acid, and uses the plate to make prints).
-referred to as the “German Leonardo”
-helped spread Italian Renaissance ideas to his homeland.

Jan/Hubert van Eyck.
-portrayed townspeople and religious scenes in rich detail.
Pieter Bruegel
-in 1500’s he used vibrant colors to portray lively scenes of peasant life. Influenced later Flemish artists who painted scenes of daily life rather than religious or classical themes.
Peter Paul Ruebens
-blended realistic tradition of Flemish painters lie Bruegel with classical themes and freedom of Italian Renaissance.
-Many of his enormous paintings portray pagan figures from the classical past.

Northern Humanists
-Like Italians, the Northern European humanist scholars stressed education and classical learning, while at the same time stressed religious themes.
-Believed revival of ancient learning should be used to bring about religious/moral reform.

-Great Dutch priest and humanist Desiderius Erasmus used knowledge of classical languages to produce a new Greek edition of the New Testament.
-called for a translation of the Bible into the vernacular, or every day language of the people.
-believed an individual’s chief duties were to be open minded and of good will towards others.

-English Humanist Thomas More also pressed for social reform.
-In his book Utopia, More describes an ideal society in which men and women live in harmony.
-nobody is idle, all educated, justice used to end crime rather than to eliminate the criminal
-today the word “Utopian” has come to describe any ideal society.

More/Erasmus wrote in Latin. In northern towns the growing middle class demanded new works in the vernacular.

-french humanist had varied career as monk, physician, greek scholar, and author.-
-wrote “Gargantua and Pantagruel” which chronicles the adventures of two gentle giants.
-on surface it looked like a comic tale of travel and war, but Rabelais uses his characters to offer opinions on religion, education, and other subjects

-most famous figure of renaissance literature
-between 1590 and 1613 he wrote 37 plays that are still performed around the world.
-his love of words enriched the English language, more than 1,700 words appeared for the first time in his works (bedroom, lonely, generous, gloomy, heartsick, hurry, sneak)

--Early 1600’s Spanish renaissance writers
-best known work is Don Quixote, an entertaining tale that mocks romantic notions of medieval chivalry.
-novel follows the adventures of Don Quixote, a foolish but idealistic night, and his faithful servant Sancho Panza.

Johan Gutenberg
-1456, German, printed first complete edition of the Bible using the first printing press
-within 20 yrs the development of movable type made book production even easier.
-printing revolution had begun that would transform Europe
-by 1500, more than 20 million volumes had been printed.
-Chinese and koreans had been using movable type for centuries. Europeans developed it independently
-printing revolution brought about immense change
books were cheaper and easier to produce than hand copied
-with more books available, people learned to read
-readers gained access to broad knowledge, new ideas
-contributed to religious turmoil in the 1500’s Europe.

Chapter 1 Section 3 – The Protestant Reformation

-Church increasingly came under fire during renaissance, accused of corruption and worldliness.
-In the 1500’s, calls for reform shattered Christian Unity = movement called Protestant Ref.

Abuses in Church
-increasingly caught up in worldly affairs. Popes competed with Italian princes for political power. Fought long wars to protect Papal States against invasion from secular rulers.
-Popes maintained lavish lifestyles. They were patrons of the arts. Hired painters/sculptors to beautify churches.
-To finance projects, Church increased fees for marriages and baptisms.
-Some clergy promoted sale of indulgences
Indulgence: lessening of the time a soul would have to spend in purgatory, a place where souls too impure to enter heaven atoned for sins committed during their lifetimes.
-In Middle ages, Church granted indulgences only for good deeds, like going on a crusade.
By 1400’s, indulgences could be obtained in exchange for money gifts to the Church.
-Many Christians protested these practices, especially in Northern Europe.
-Christian humanists such as Erasmus urged a return to the simple ways of the early Christian Church.
-they stressed bible study and rejected what they saw as the worldliness of the Church.

Luther’s Protest
-In 1517, protests against church abuses erupted into a full scale revolt.
-German monk and professor of theology Martin Luther was the man who triggered it.
-Luther lived a pious life, praying and fasting. Believed he was doomed for eternal damnation. Grew disillusioned with what he saw as Church corruption and worldliness.
-An incident in the town of Wittenberg prompted him to take action.

95 Theses
-In 1517, a priest named Johann Tetzel set up a pulpit on the outskirts of Wittenberg
-Offered indulgences to any Christian who contributed money to the rebuilding of the Cathedral of St. Peter in rome.
-Tetzel claimed that purchases of indulgences would assure entry into heaven not only for the purchaser but for their dead relatives as well.
-“don’t you hear the voices of your dead parents and other relatives crying out” he said
-To Luther, Tetzel’s actions were the final outrage.
-He drew up 95 theses, or arguments, against indulgences.
-argued that indulgences had no basis in the Bible, and the pope had no authority to release souls from purgatory, and Christians could only be saved through faith alone.
-Luther posted his list on the door of Wittenberg’s All Saints Church.

Luther vs. the Church
-almost overnight, copies of Luther’s 95 theses were printed and spread across Europe.
-Spread furious debate.
-Church called on Luther to recant, or give up, his views. Luther refused.
-Instead, he became more radical. Because the church would not reform itself, he said it must be reformed by secular authorities.
1521: Pope excommunicated Luther. Later that year, Holy Roman emperor Charles V summoned Luther to an assembly of German princes at Worms. Luther went expecting to defend his writings, but the emperor ordered him to simply give them up. Luther refused (quote)
-Charles declared Luther an outlaw, making it a crime for anyone in the empire to give him food/shelter.
-Luther had many powerful supporters, who hid him for nearly a year.
-In Germany, Luther was hailed as a hero, they accepted his teachings and renounced authority of pope.

Luther’s teachings
1. rejected idea that good deeds were necessary for salvation – Luther argued that salvation was achieved through faith alone.
2. Luther upheld the bible as the sole source of religious truth. Denied other authorities like Church councils and the pope.
3. Rejected idea that priests and Church hierarchy had special powers. Believed all Christians had equal access to God through faith and the bible.
-Luther translated the bible into German vernacular so ordinary ppl could study it
4. banned indulgences, confession, pilgrimages, simplified rituals and permitted clergy to marry. These changes were adopted by Lutheran churches that were set up by his followers.

-By 1530, Lutherans were using a new name, Protestant, for those who “protested” papal authority.

-Luther’s ideas found much support in northern Germany and Scandanavia.
-Printing press spread his writings, and inspired preachers denounced Church abuses in their sermons.

Why did Lutheranism win widespread support?
1. Many clergy saw Luther’s reforms as the answer to Church corruption
2. German princes embraced his beliefs for selfish reasons, as a way to throw off the rule of the Church and the Holy Roman emperor.
3. Others saw it as a chance to seize Church property in their territory.
4. Some were tired of German money going to support churches and clergy in Italy.

Peasants Revolt
-Many peasants got behind Luther in hopes of gaining his support for social/economic change
-1524: Peasants revolt erupted across Germany
-rebels called for end to serfdom and demanded change in their lives.
-Luther strongly supported social order and respect for political authority.
-Revolt grew more violent, and Luther denounced it.
-With Luther’s support, nobles suppressed rebellion, killing tens of thousands of peasants and leaving thousands more homeless

The Peace of Augsburg
-During 1530’s and 1540’s, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V tried to force Lutheran princes back into Catholic churches, but with little success.
-after a few brief wars, Charles and the princes reached a settlement

-The Peace of Augsburg, signed in 1555, allowed each prince to decide which religion, Catholic or Lutheran, would be followed in his land. Most of Northern Germany chose Lutheranism. The south remained mostly Catholic.

John Calvin

-Calvin presented further challenges to the Catholic Church. His ideas had a profound effect on the direction of the Reformation. Even more conservative than Luther.
-Born in France and trained as a priest and Lawyer
-1536: Calvin published the Institutes of the Christian Religion.
-in this book, which was distributed and read by protestants everywhere, he put forth his religious beliefs. He also gave advice on how to organize and run a Protestant church.
-Like Luther, Calvin believed that salvation was gained through faith alone.

-Calvin also put forth a number of his own ideas:
-he preached predestination, the idea that God had long ago determined who would gain salvation.
-To Calvinists, the world is divided into two kinds of people: saints and sinners
-Calvinists tried to live like saints, believing that only those who were saved could live truly Christian lives.

Calvin’s Geneva
1541: Protestants in city state of Geneva in Switzerland asked Calvin to lead their community
-Calvin set up a theocracy, or a government run by church leaders.
-Calvin’s followers in Geneva saw themselves as a new “chosen people” entrusted by god to build a truly Christian society. A model community. Utopia?
-Stressed hard work, discipline, thrift, honesty, and morality.
-Citizens faced fines or other punishments for offenses like fighting, swearing, laughing in church, or dancing.
-Calvin closed theaters, frowned upon elaborate fashion

-Like Luther, Calvin believed in a religious education for girls as well as boys.
-he felt women should read the Bible – in private
-also allowed women to sing in Church, a practice that many church leaders criticized.

Spread of Calvinism
-reformers all over Europe visited Geneva and then returned home to spread Calvin’s ideas
-by late 1500s Calvinism had taken root in Germany, France, Netherlands, England, Scotland
-new challenge to RC Church set of bloody religious wars across Europe.
-In Germany, Calvinists were opposed not only by Catholics but from Lutherans as well.
-In France, wars raged between French Calvinists and Catholics
-In Netherlands, the Dutch Reformed Church was formed. To avoid persecution, “field preachers” gave sermons in the countryside to avoid the eyes of town authorities
-In Scotland, a Calvinist preacher John Knox led a religious rebellion that overthrew their Catholic queen.

September 6th – Section 4 – Reformation Ideas Spread

-Henry the III king of France deeply disturbed by Calvinist reformers in Geneva (quote)
-Throughout Europe, Catholic monarchs and the Church fought against Protestant Challenge.
-Took steps to reform Catholic Church and restore its place at the spiritual center of the Christian world. Protestantism continued to spread.

Radical Reformers
-Hundreds of new Protestant sects sprang up as the reformation continued.
-their ideas were even more radical than those of Luther and Calvin.
-Anabaptists: rejected infant baptism. Argued that infants are too young to understand what it means to accept the Christian faith. Only adults should receive the sacrament of baptism.

-a few Anabaptist sects wanted radical social change as well (abolish private property, speed up God’s day of judgment by violent means).
-When radical Anabaptists took over city of Munster in Germany, even Luther advised his supporters to join with Catholics to suppress the thread they posed to the traditional order.
-Most Anabaptists were peaceful, called for religious toleration, separation of church and state. These groups influenced Protestant thinking in many countries despite harsh persecution.
-Baptists, Quakers, Mennonites, Amish: all trace ancestry to Anabaptists.

The English Reformation
-In England, religious leaders like John Wycliffe called for church reform as early as the 1300’s.
-By 1520’s, English clergy were toying with Protestant ideas.
-The break from the Catholic church didn’t come from religious leaders, but from Henry VIII
-for political reasons, he wanted to end papal control over the English Church

Seeking Annulment
-At first, Henry VIII was strongly against Protestant revolt.
-pope even awarded him the title “defender of the faith” for a pamphlet he wrote criticizing Luther.
-1527: issue arose that set Henry at odds with the Church
-after 18 yrs of marriage, Henry and his Spanish wife Catherine of Aragon, had only one Child, Mary Tudor.
-Henry thought England’s stability depended on him having a male heir.
-Henry wanted to marry Anne Boleyn, hoping she’d bear him a son.
-Because Catholic law doesn’t permit divorce, he requested that the pope annul (cancel) their marriage.
-Popes had done this before for royal marriages.
-Current pope refused, didn’t want to offend the Holy Roman emperor Charles V, Catherine’s nephew.

Break with Rome
-Henry was furious. Encouraged by his advisers, many who were leaning towards Protestant teachings, he decided to take over the English church
-Acting through Parliament, he had a series of laws passed.
-they took English church from the pope’s control and placed it under Henry’s rule.
1534: Act of Supremacy made Henry “the only supreme head on earth of the Church of England”
-many Catholics refused to accept the act and were executed for treason.
-Among the executed rebels was Sir Thomas More, the English humanist, who was later canonized, or recognized as a saint by the Catholic Church.
-at the same time, Henry appointed Thomas Cranmer archbishop.
-Cranmer annulled the king’s marriage, and he then wed Anne Boleyn, who bore him a second daughter Elizabeth.
-In the years that followed, Henry married four more times but only had one son, Edward.

Church of England
-Between 1536 and 1540, royal officials investigated English convents and monasteries.
-Henry claimed that they were centers of immorality, ordered them closed, and seized their lands and wealth.
-Henry granted these lands to nobles and high ranking citizens, thus securing their support for the Anglican Church, which is what the new Church of England was called.
-Henry not a religious radical, rejected most Protestant doctrines. Aside from breaking away from Rome and using the English bible, he kept most Catholic methods of worship.

Religious Turmoil
1547 – Henry dies, his 10-year-old son Edward VI inherited the throne.
-Young King’s advisers were devout Protestants and under him they passed new laws that brought Protestant reform to England.
-Thomas Cranmer wrote the Book of Common Prayer that imposed a Protestant service while keeping many Catholic doctrines. Uprisings were suppressed.

-Edward died in his teens, and his half sister, Mary Tudor, became queen. “bloody Mary”
-she was determined to return England to the Catholic faith.
-under Mary, hundreds of Protestants were burned at the stake.

1558 – Mary dies, throne passed on to Elizabeth.
-Elizabeth was responsible for determining the future of the Church of England.
-Moved cautiously at first, slowly enforced reforms that were later called the Elizabethan Settlement.
-Queen’s policies were a compromise (middle ground) between Protestant and Catholic practices. The
-kept Catholic hierarchy of bishops and archbishops, but reaffirmed that the monarch was head of Anglican Church.
-Restored a version of the Book of Common Prayer, a Protestant doctrine, and allowed English to replace Latin in church services
-During long reign, Elizabeth used her skills to restore unity to England.
-While keeping many Catholic traditions, she made England a firmly Protestant nation.

Section 5 – Scientific Revolution

-leaders of Renaissance and Reformation looked to the past for models.
-Humanists – ancient classical ideas
-Religious reformers – inspired by Bible and early Christian times
In contrast, the profound changes that took place in science in the mid-1500’s pointed towards the future, a future shaped by new ways of thinking about the physical universe.

-Until mid 1500’s, scholars accepted the theory of Ptolemy, an ancient Greek astronomer.
-Ptolemy taught that the Earth was at the center of the universe (geocentric model). This view seemed to agree with common sense as well as the teachings of the Church.
-In the 1500’s and 1600’s, some major discoveries changed the way Europeans viewed the physical world completely. (Scientific Revolution)

Revolutionary Theory
1543- Polish scholar Nicolaus Copernicus published “On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres”
-In this document, he proposed a heliocentric (sun centered) model of the universe.
-According to this model, the Earth was just one of several planets that revolved around the sun. UNMOVING
-Most experts rejected Copernicus’s theory. In Europe, all scientific knowledge and many religious teachings were based on the work of classical thinkers.
-If Ptolemy’s reasoning is wrong, then the whole system of human knowledge could be called into question.
-By late 1500’s, Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe provided evidence that supported Copernicus’s theory.
-Every night Brah carefully observed the sky, accumulating data about the movement of heavenly bodies.
-After Brahe’s death, his assistant Johannes Kepler, used Brahe’s data to calculate orbits of planets that revolved around the sun. His calculations supported Copernicus’s heliocentric theory, but added that planets didn’t move in perfect circles, but in oval shaped orbits called ellipses.

-assembled astronomical telescope, observed four moons of Jupiter moving slowly around the planet, exactly the way Copernicus said the Earth moved around the sun
-Galileo’s discovery caused uproar. Other scholars attacked him bc his observations contradicted ancient views about the world.
-Church condemned him because his ideas challenged Christian teachings that the heavens were fixed, unmoving, perfect.
1633 – Galileo tried before the Inquisition, threatened with death unless he withdrew his “heresies” . Galileo agreed to state publicly that the earth stood motionless at the center of the universe.
-“Nevertheless” he muttered, “it does move” .

A new Scientific Method

-By early 1600’s, a new approach to science had emerged. Unlike earlier approaches, didn’t rely on ancient authorities like Aristotle, Ptolemy, or the Bible.
-depended on observation and experimentation. Step by step process.
-required scientists to collect and accurately measure data.
-scientists used reasoning to propose a logical hypothesis (possible explanation).
-then they tested hypothesis with further observation and experimentation
-after reaching conclusion, scientists repeated work at least once to confirm findings (variables?)

Bacon And Descartes
-scientific method a revolution in thought
-Englishman Francis Bacon and Frenchman Rene Descartes devoted themselves to problem of knowledge.
-both challenged scholarly traditions of medieval universities that sought to make physical world fit in with teachings of the church.
-both argued that truth is not known at the beginning of an inquiry, but at the ned, after a long process of investigation

-Differed in methods though. Bacon stressed experimentation and observation, wanted science to make life better for ppl, by leading to practical technologies
-Descartes emphasized human reasoning as the best road to understanding.
-discourse on Method – explains how he decided to discard all traditional authorities and search for provable knowledge. Left only with doubt, he concluded that the doubter had to exist and he made his famous statement “I think therefore I am”

There are different terms used to describe scientific ideas based on the amount of confirmed experimental evidence.

-a statement that uses a few observations
-an idea based on observations without experimental evidence

- uses many observations and has loads of experimental evidence
- can be applied to unrelated facts and new relationships
- - flexible enough to be modified if new data/evidence introduced

- stands the test of time, often without change
- - experimentally confirmed over and over
- - can create true predictions for different situations
- - has uniformity and is universal
Mr. Fisher

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